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    职称英语考试卫生类C级课堂笔记第28讲
    cordingtoagovernmentstudy.Dailycigarsalsoincreasetheriskoflungcancerandcanceroftheesophagus,andincreasetheriskofcancerofthelarynx(voicebox)sixfold,sayresearchersattheNationalCancerInstituteinBethesd...-zhksw摘 关键词:考试 真题 模拟题 试题 押密 预测 练 答案 习题
    作者:名师  来源:网校  发布时间:2008-7-12 4:40:44

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    2005年职称英语精讲课程
     
    (卫生类C级)
     
     
     
    阅读理解第五讲
     
    例题解析:
     
    passage 1
     
    Cigars instead
     
    Smoking one or two cigars a day doubles the risk of cancers of the lip,tongue,mouth and throat,according to a government study.
     
    Daily cigars also increase the risk of lung cancer and cancer of the esophagus,and increase the risk of cancer of the larynx(voicebox) sixfold,say researchers at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda,Maryland.
     
    In addition,the report revealed that smoking three or four cigars a day increased the risk of oral cancer to 8.5 times the risk for nonsmokers and the risk of esophageal cancer by four times the risk of nonsmokers.
     
    The health effects of smoking cigars is one of eight sections of the article“Cigars:Health Effects and Trends.”The researchers report that,compared with a cigarette,a large cigar emits up to 90 times as much carcinogenic tobacco.specific nitrosamines.
     
    “This article provides clear and invaluable information about the disturbing increase0 in
     
    cigar use and the significant public health consequences。for the country,”said Dr.Richard
     
    Klausner,director of the National Cancer Institute,in a statement.
     
    “The data are clear—the harmful substances and carcinogens in cigar smoke.1ike
     
    cigarettes,are associated with。the increased risks of several kinds of cancers as well as heart and lung diseases,”he added.“In other words,cigars are not safe alternatives to cigarettes and may be addictive.”
     
    “To those individuals who may be thinking about smoking cigars,our advice is—don’t.To those currently smoking cigars,quitting is the only way to eliminate completely the cancer,heart and lung disease risks,”warned Klausner.
     
    According to a National Cancer Institute press release, there haven’t been any studies on the health effects on nonsmokers at cigar social events.but“…a significant body of evidence clearly demonstrates an increased lung cancer risk from secondhand smoke.’’
     
    词汇:
     
    cigar/n.雪茄烟
     
    double/vt.使加倍,把……增一倍
     
    esophagus/n.食管
     
    larynx/n.喉
     
    esophageal/adj.食管的
     
    carcinogenic/adj.致癌的
     
    nitrosamine/n.亚硝胺
     
    carcinogen/n.致癌物
     
    alternative/n.供替代的抉择
     
    addictive/adj.(使人)上瘾的, (使人)入迷的
     
     
     
    1.According co the report.smoking three or four cigars a day
     
    A)increases the risk of oral cancer for non-smokers.
     
    B)greatly increases the risk of oral cancer for smokers.
     
    C)increases the risk of more than one cancer for non-smokers,
     
    D)greatly increases the risk of more than one cancer for smokers.
     
     
     
    2.In the passage how many cancers are mentioned in relation to smoking cigars daily?
     
    A)Six.
     
    B)Seven.
     
    C)Eight.
     
    D)Nine.
     
     
     
    3.What is the main idea of the article“Cigars:Health Effects and Trends”?
     
    A)When it comes to cancer,cigars are not any safer than cigarettes.
     
    B)Cigars may be addictive while cigarettes are not easily so.
     
    C)Cigars contain less harmful substances than cigarettes.
     
    D)Increase in cigar-smoking does not affect public health much.
     
     
     
    4.What is the doctors’advice to those cigar-smokers?
     
    A)To give it up completely.
     
    B)To give up part of it.
     
    C)Not to think about it any more.
     
    D)To cure the diseases first.
     
     
     
    5.In the context of this passage,“secondhand smoke”means
     
    A)smoking bad-quality cigars.
     
    B)smoking very cheap cigars.
     
    C)being near cigar smokers when they are not smoking.
    D)being near cigar smokers when they are smoking.
     
     
     
    1.文章标题分析:
     
    Cigars instead
     
    instead: adv. 替代;更换; (与of连用)代替
     
    synonyms: rather than, in place of
     
    e.g. I didn't have a pen, so I used a pencil instead.
     
    我没有钢笔,因此我就用铅笔了。
     
    e.g. We'll have tea in the garden instead of in the house.
     
    我们将改在花园喝茶,而不在屋里喝。
     
     
     
    2. 解题:
     
    1. According to the report, smoking three or four cigars a day
     
    A. increases the risk of oral cancer for non-smokers
     
    B. greatly increases the risk of oral cancer for smokers
     
    C. increases the risk of more than one cancer for non-smokers
     
    D. greatly increases the risk of more than one cancer for smokers
     
    1. D。分析:利用题干中的核心结构(smoking three or four cigars)作为答案线索,这样在文章中找到答案相关句:
     
    In addition, the report revealed that smoking three or four cigars a day increased the risk of oral cancer to 8.5 times the risk for nonsmokers and the risk of esophageal(食道的) cancer by four times the risk of nonsmokers.
     
    被选项中出现的结构具有干扰性:A和C中的for non-smokers的含义是“对于不吸烟者”, 而B和D进行比较,D更合适。
     
     
     
    2. In the passage how many cancers are mentioned in relation to smoking cigars daily?
     
    A. six
     
    B. seven
     
    C. eight
     
    D. nine
     
    2. B。分析:注意备选项的特点(都是数字),在文章中查找cancers,发现在文章开头提到:
     
    Smoking one or two cigars a day double the risk of cancers of the lip, tongue, mouth, and throat(小于最小的6种) ,于是继续找:
     
    Daily cigars also increase the risk of lung cancer and cancer of the esophagus(食道的), and increase the risk of cancer of the larynx (喉) sixfold, say researchers at..
     
    -fold suf.[置于数词后]表示“倍, 重”,
     
    如:fivefold, manifold, hundredfold
     
    并注意判断第3段中的
     
    In addition, the report revealed that smoking three or four cigars a day increased the risk of oral cancer(“口腔癌症”是统称) to 8.5 times the risk for nonsmokers and the risk of esophageal(食道的) cancer
     
    所以判断答案为:B。
     
     
     
    3. What is the main idea of the article Cigars: health effects and trends?
     
    A. When it comes to cancer, cigars are not any safer than cigarettes.
     
    B. Cigars may be addictive(上瘾的)while cigarettes are not easily so.
     
    C. Cigars contain less harmful substances than cigarettes
     
    D. Increase in cigar-smoking does not affect public health much.
     
    3. 分析:利用题干中所问的文章名称作为答案线索,发现直接答案相关句:
    The health effects of smoking cigars is one of eight sections of the article Cigars: health effects and trends . The researchers report that, compared with a cigarette, a large cigar emits up to 90 times as much carcinogenic (致癌物(质)的)tobacco-specific nitrosamines(亚硝胺)(揭示C错误).
     
    The article provides clear and invaluable information about the disturbing increase in cigar use and the significant public health consequences for the country(揭示D错误), said..
     
    .he added. “In other words, cigars are not safe alternatives to cigarettes and may be addictive” 该句揭示A是正确的。B中所提到的“香烟不容易上瘾”在原文中没有出现相关的内容。
     
     
     
    4. What is the doctor's advice to those cigar-smokers?
     
    A. to give it up completely
     
    B. to give up part of it
     
    C. not to think about it any more
     
    D. to cure the disease first
     
    4. A. 分析:注意文章中涉及到“医生建议”的句子:
     
    To those individuals who may be thinking about smoking cigars, or advice is -- don't. To those currently smoking cigars, quitting is the only way to eliminating completely the cancer, heart and lung disease risks, warned Klausner. (上文中提到:Dr. Richard Klauser, director of the National Cancer Institute)
     
    确认答案为A。
     
     
     
    5. In the context of this passage, secondhand smoke means
     
    A. smoking bad-quality cigars
     
    B. smoking very cheap cigars
     
    C. being near cigar smokers when they are not smoking
     
    D. being near cigar smokers when they are smoking
     
    5. D。分析: 利用题干中引语的内容secondhand smoke作为答案线索(因为:该短语是新组合的短语),这样在文章中找到相关的语句:
     
    According to a National Cancer Institute press release, there haven't been any studies on the health effects on nonsmokers at cigar social events, but ..a significant body of evidence clearly demonstrates an increased lung cancer risk from secondhand smoke
     
    借助该句有关结构判断D是答案。
     
     
     
    Passage 2
     
    Pushbike(自行车) Peril
     
    Low speed bicycle crashes can badly injure--or even kill--children if they fall onto the ends of the handlebars so a team of engineers is redesigning the humble handlebar in a bid to make it safer.
     
    Kristy Arbogast, a bioengineer at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, began the project with her colleagues after a study of serious abdominal injuries in children in the past 30 years showed that mol-e than a third were caused by bicycle accidents.”the task was to identify how the injuries occurred and come up with some countermeasures.” she says.
     
    By interviewing the children and their parents,Arbogast and her team were able to
     
    reconstruct many of the accidents and identified a common mechanism responsible for serious injures. They discovered that most occur when children hit an obstacle at a slow speed,causing them to topple over. To maintain their balance they turn the handlebars through 90degrees——but their momentum forces them into the end of the handlebars The bike then falls over and the other end of the handlebars hits the ground,ramming it into their abdomen.
     
    The solution the group came up with is a handgrip fitted with a spring and damping system. The spring absorbs up to 50 per cent of the forces transmitted through the handlebars in an impact,The group hopes to commercialize the device,which should add only a few dollars to the cost of a bike. “But our task has been one of education because up until now, bicycle manufacturer were unaware of the problem,”says Arbogast.
     
    The team has also approached the US Consumer Product Safety Commission to try to
     
    persuade manufacturers to adopt the new design A decision is expected later this year.
     
     
     
    词汇:
     
    handlebar n(常用复数)(自行车等的)车把 
     
    abdominal adj 腹部的 redesign v 重新设计
     
    bioengineer n 生物工程师 reconstruct vt.重建;重构
     
    countermeasure n 对策 abdomen n 膜,腹部
     
    momentum n冲力 handgrip n握柄
     
    damping adj 制动的.减速的,缓冲的 commercialize vt 使商品化
     
     
     
    练习:
     
    1 According to the passage,SOme engineers are trying to improve the handlebars because
     
    A)they are not noble enough,
     
    B)they may kill children
     
    C)they are likely to crash
     
    D)they make the bike move at a low speed
     
     
     
    2 In paragraph 2, the author mentions a study of serious abdominal injuries
     
    A)to discuss how abdominal injuries in children occur,
     
    B)to show that more than a third injuries were caused by bicycle accidents.
     
    C)to point out what the countermeasures can be.
     
    D)to tell us why Kristy Arbogast began the project.
     
     
     
    3 Paragraph 3 mainly discusses
     
    A)why the children and their parents were interviewed
     
    B)when the children tom the handlebars through 90 degrees,
     
    C)what causes the children to topple over
     
    D)how serious injuries occur.
     
     
     
    4 The passage implies that
     
    A)it is not easy to persuade manufacturers to adopt the new design.
     
    B)the team of engineers has not found any countermeasures
     
    C)children like to ride bicycles at a very low speed.
     
    D)a lot of children were killed in bicycle accidents in the past 30 years.
     
     
     
    5 The new handgrip works in which of the following ways?
     
    A)It call be commercialized.
     
    B)It reduces the dangerous forces in bicycle accidents
     
    C)It adds a few dollars to the cost of a bike
     
    D)It changes the direction of the handlebars in all impact.
     
     
     
    1. 文章标题分析:Pushbike Peril
     
    2. 直接解题:
     
    1. According to the passage, some engineers are trying to improve the handlebars(车把) because
     
    A. they are not noble enough
     
    B. they may kill children
     
    C. they are likely to crash
     
    D. they make the bike move at a low speed
     
    1。B. 分析:借助常识判断A不是答案;利用题干中的核心词engineers 和handlebars作为答案线索,这样找到答案相关句:Low speed bicycle crashes can badly injure –or even kill –children if they fall onto the ends of the handlebars. So a team of engineers is redesigning handlebar in a bid to make it safer. 划线句说“车把手不安全会严重的伤害孩子,甚至杀死孩子,所以工程师们参加了竞标对车把进行重新设计,以使其更加安全”
     
     
     
    2. In paragraph 2, the author mentions a study of serious abdominal injuries
     
    A. to discuss how abdominal injures in children occur.
     
    B. To show that more than a third injuries were caused by bicycle accident
     
    C. To point out what the countermeasures can be
     
    D. To tell us why Kristy Arbogast began the project.
     
    2 D。分析:利用题干中的核心结构serious abdominal injuries作为答案线索,问题问及目的,所以注意段落中表示目的的句子/结构,这样找到答案相关句:Kristy Arobogast, a bioengineer at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania began the project with her colleagues after a study of serious abdominal injuries in children in the past 30 years(a study主语是) showed that more than a third were caused by bicycle accidents. “The task was to identify how the injuries occurred and come up with some countermeasures该结构是表示目的,结构含义是“辨别受伤是怎样产生的,并想出一些应对措施”因此判断A和C错误 ” she said. 在前面的长句子中showed的主语是“a study”而不是“Kristy Arobogast”,因此判断B错误。也可以借助文章的逻辑来加以答案的判断:后面的段落中在具体讲述实验进行的内容,(By interviewing the children and their parents, Arogast and her team were able to reconstruct… They discovered that.. To maintain their balance they turn ..)却没有讲述这个实验/项目的目的,所以判断D是答案。
     
     
     
    3. Paragraph 3 mainly discusses
     
    A. why the children and their parents were interviewed
     
    B. when the children turn the handlebars through 90 degrees
     
    C. what causes the children to topple over(颠翻)
     
    D. how serious injuries occur
     
    3. D.分析:因为上段中提到了研究的目的是“辨别受伤是怎样产生的,并想出一些应对措施”,因此推断C和D可能是答案。而该段的第1句(观点句) 概述了全段的大意:By interviewing the children and their parents, Arbogast and her team were able to reconstruct many of the accidents and identified a common mechanism responsible for serious injuries.(与D呼应)而接下来的句子也是在具体说他们如何进行的实验—They discovered that…To maintain their balance they turn the handlebars through 90 degree--…The bike then falls over and..
     
     
     
    4. The passage implies that
     
    A it is not easy to persuade manufacturers to adopt the new design
     
    B. the team of engineers has not found any countermeasures
     
    C. children like to ride bicycles at a very low speed
     
    D a lot of children were killed in bicycle accidents in the past 30 years
     
    4.A. 分析;该题问及从文章中能够推断出什么来,在论述文中往往在文章的开头和/或结尾处传递出文章的中心/观点,因此注意文章结尾(文章开头的语句与被选项都没有关系):The team has also approached the US consumer Product Safety Commission to try to persuade manufacturers to adopt the new design.(该句表明B错误) A decision is expected later this year. 该句说“试图说服制造商”,因此推测出“说服制造商”不是一件容易的事情。
     
     
     
    5. The new handgrip(手柄) works in which of the following ways?
     
    A. it can be commercialized
     
    B. it reduces the dangerous forces in bicycle accidents
     
    C. it adds a few dollars to the cost of a bike
     
    D. it changes the direction of the handlebars in an impact
     
    5.分析:根据解答前面问题获取的信息:--伤害孩子的是把手的末断,因此推断B和D可能是答案。利用题干中的核心词handgrip作为答案线索,这样找到答案相关句:The solution the group came up with is a handgrip fitted with a spring and damping system. The spring absorbs up to 50 percent of the forces transmitted through the handlebars in an impact. 这两个句子说“手柄的弹簧能吸收在碰撞中通过把手而传递过来的50%的伤害力”,因此判断B是答案


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